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01 Sep

Fine Tune Your English: Section K Miscellaneous and General

Fine Tune Your English

Section K Miscellaneous and General

MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL TOPICS

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

 

British English

American English

 Usage

Date format is

DD.MM.YYYY

Date format

MM.DD.YYYY

Grammar

India have lost the game

(present perfect)

India lost the game

(simple past)

Vocabulary

Sweets

Biscuits

Petrol

Candy

Cookies

gasoline

Spelling

Cheque

Plough

Programme

Colour

Check

Plow

Program

color

Pronunciation

Dance – /da:ns/

Dance - /d ns/

 

ONCE MEN OF PARTS NOW PARTS OF SPEECH

(Origin of words)

 Brougham → pronounced as broom

 From the name a lord brougham

 Means that one seated closed carriage

 Macadam → From the name J.L Macadam

 Means that to cover the road with small broken stones

 Burke → from the name burke

 Means -to strangle somebody

 Lynch → from the name Charles lynch

 Means that action of a mob judging without legal procedures

 Boycott → from the name Charles boycott

 Means to refuse to deal with an individual.

 

ON GEESE AND MONGOOSES

 Rules for plural formation:

when `s` is added some spelling adjustments are needed

 Y →ies

 Sky → skies

 Fe → ves

 Knife → knives

 O → o +es

 Mango → mangoes

 Mutation plurals

 - nouns from plural by changing the vowel

 Man → men

nouns borrowed from other language form plural as in original language

 Alumnus →alumni

Exceptions :

  • Nouns treated as singular even though ending in `s` .

 eg : news

 mumps → (diseases)

 politics, mathematics (subjects)

  • Summation plurals.

 eg : He is dressed in blue trousers.

  •  Nouns that occur only in the plural form.

 eg : arms → weapons

 arm → not mean one weapon

 A number of foreign words in English form their plurals in original language.

Us →i

Radius → radii

ex → ices

index →indices

 

 

PLURALISATION

 Adjustments in spelling (while adding suffix `s`)

1. y →ies

 Spy → spies

 Exception :

 Boy – boies(wrong)

 Boy – boys ( correct)

2.Letter names ,numbers ,abbreviation, are pluralised by adding `s`

 eg: There are two t`s in matthew.

3.Nouns ending in `o` generally pluralised with `s` and `es`

 `es` for –echo,hero

 Both`s` and `es` - buffalo,cargo.

4. Compound plurals

  • Plural in the first word.(eg.secretaries – general)
  • Plural in first and last word (eg .men servants)
  • Plural in the last word ( eg.postmen)

5. Three nouns

  • Brother – brethren
  • Child - children
  • Ox – oxen.

 

 

 TEN IN TO THIRTY IS THREE

Mathematical functions in English

1. 17 x 280 – seventeen times two hundred and eighty or seventeen multiplied by two hundred and eighty

2. 710 + 100 =810 –seven hundred and ten plus one hundred is eight hundred and ten.

3. 20-10= 10- twenty minus ten is ten.

 Ten from twenty leaves ten

4. year can be told as two numbers

eg: 1999 – I saw him in nineteen ninety nine.

5. dealing with fraction

 2/3 –two thirds

6.reading numbers .

 100 –a hundred

 1000 –a thousand

 

ON GENDER AND SEXISM

ENGLISH FOLLOWS NATURAL GENDER DETERMINED BY SEX.

BASIC RULES ON GENDER FORMATION.

 1.Feminine forms of masculine formed by suffix;

 ‘ess’ lion-lioness.

 ‘ine’→ hero-heroine.

 ‘trix’→ administrator-administratrix.

 ‘a’→ sultan-sultana.

2.Femine formed by another word.

 Eg: bachelor-spnister.

3.some feminine endings with ‘ess’.

 Eg: poetess,authoress.

4.Name of the countries are usually treated as feminine ,but if treated as geographic unit it is considered as inanimate one.

 Eg: Look at Sri Lanka in the map.It is very small.

 England is proud of her tradition.

5.pronouns are used after dual nouns like student,librarian etc.

 Eg:Everybody should do his or her duty.

6.pedigree of an animal; sire and dam, not father and mother.

 

VERY GOOD BUT TOTALLY INCOMPETENT

 

“Do” and “action” do not collocate.

eg x Somebody did a good or wrong action

  • He did something good or bad.

“Very”and “adjectives” do not collocate.

eg: x That news was very shocking.

  • That news was quite shocking.

 

Do not use “very” before adjectives like convinced, terrible, huge, incompetent , exhausted, silent.

Instead use absolutely, totally, completely, quite , highly, etc.

“Neither is he decent nor straight forward”.

The word “nor” in the sentence is not related to neither.

 Neither can be an indefinite pronoun ,an indefinite determiner or an adverb.

 

 LONG LIVE THE COMMA

PUNCTUATIONA PART OF MEANING OF THE SENTENCE.

 →DIVIDE A SENTENCE INTO PHRASES AND CLAUSES .

  • COMMA:

  To separate words in a list. comma is not inserted before and.

 Eg:Musical syllabus are do ,re ,mi ,fa ,la and ti.

 → To separate phrases and clauses.

 Eg: When I went there ,a lot of people were waiting for me.

 → Adverbs should be separated with commas.

 Eg :George , however , is not aware of this .

 → To Seperate tag questions.

 → To separate introductory words /phrases that apply to whole sentence.

 →To introduce short quotations.

 

SEMICOLONS

 →use at the end of grammatically complete units to indicate that an addition is necessary to complete the meaning.

 Eg: We failed four times ;let’s hope this time we will succeed.

  • Colon:

 use before an explanation.

 Eg: we have to take john to hospital : he has sprained his ankle.

→ Introduce a list or a quotation.

 Eg : The SQ3R system of study consists of : survey ,question ,read ,revise.

Used to separate main title from subtitle.

 

 THE POSSESSIVE CASE

 

  1. Possessive case is used to indicate by adding “ ‘s ”to a singular and an apostrophe to a plural noun.

 Eg: John’s brother.

 Parent s’ duty.

 2.when two nouns are in possessive add “ ‘s” in the second noun.

 Eg: Jack and Jill ’s poem.

3.Possessive of nouns ending in ‘s’ →we add an apostrophe to certain other nouns.

 Eg: Henry James’s novels.

 Archimedes’ principle.

4.Two other ways to form possessive instead of ‘s’ .

  • Putting two nouns together.

 -a car factory.

 (first noun →possessive adjective)

  • Use of before nouns.

-end of the road.

5.T o put the “ ‘s” genitive rules in a nutshell:

  • Personal names take ‘s.
  • Collective nouns from the genitive with ‘s.
  • Name of higher animals.
  • Geographical and institutional names .
  • Showing time.
  • Special interest to human activity.

 

5.The ‘of’ genitive is used with inanimate nouns.

 Eg : hardness of diamond.

6.Double genitive → use both “ ’s” genitive and ‘of’ genitive in same sentences.

 Eg: a novel of Hardy’s.

7.Genitive form always does not show possession

 

 

 READING

Reading is the means by which the written or printed word is accessed.

 Dictionary defines→ reading as the mental or vocal reproduction of the written word.

 READERS.

  • Good reader

 ○ read rapidly with comprehension.

 

  • Better reader

 ○read rapidly ,critically and with comprehension.

  • Best reader

 ○Reader who is able to add retention of what is read to these attainments.

 Kinds of reading

1.Recreational reading.

  • Reading for pleasure.
  • Reading of story .

2.Study type reading

  • Reading for study something.
  • Slow and serious reading.

3.Survey reading.

  • Search for some specific piece of information.
  • Give information on a particular topic.

 

  1. Different types of reading → Henry madox.

 

1.Reading to master the contents.

2.Exploratory reading.

3.Revision reading.

4.reading for acquiring answer to a question.

5.Critical reading.

6.recreational reading.

 

PROCESS OF READING

 

  • Fixation Our eyes focus on a group of two or three words to send its message to the brain .such pause is fixation.
  • Regression → Backward movement of eye for re-read.
  • Return sweep → Eye sweeps back to the left to read next line.

FACTORS FOR READABILITY

  • Average number of words in sentences.
  • Number of commonly understood words.
  • Average number of syllables.
  • Number of long complex sentences.
  • Proportion of abstract ideas.
  • Number of proportional phrase.

 

Importance of reading:

 

  • Reading nourishes the mind.
  • Strengthen the mind.
  • Reading=exercise.
  • Pleasure.

 

  • PREVIEWING → Exploratory reading of a text with the intention of finding out the main idea .

Steps:

  • Read the title and sub title.
  • Read introductory sentence/concluding passage.
  • Skim through the passage .

 

  • SKIMMING→ Remove floating material from a liquid.

 →It is the process by which not so much to read the text ,glance through it in order to get general idea.

 

 How to make reading more effective?

  • Reading is not just an activity of eye, brain also involves.
  • Make eye movement more effectieve.
  • Genuine interest.
  • Speed of reading.
  • Concentration.
  • Shift the reading style depending on context.

 How to use library?

Knowledge about the organization of library.

  • Look books in right place.

 Organisation of library.

*   American Dewey Decimal method.

*    Divide knowledge into TEN broad division.

 

 000-099 → General.

 100-199 → Philosophy.

 200-299 → Religion.

 300-399 → Social sciences.

 400-499 → Language.

 500-599 → Pure science.

 600-699 → Applied science.

 700-799 → Fine arts, recreation.

 800-899 → Literature.

 900-999 → History / Geography.

*      Subdivision of these books.

 510 - Mathematics.

 520 – Astronomy.

 530 – Physics.

 540 – Chemistry.

                    550 – Earth Science.

                    560 – Fossils.

                    570 – Biology.

                    580 – Botany.

                    590 – Zoology.

 

*      Again sub divide.

                    796 – Outdoor sports.

                    797 – water and Air sports.

                    798 – Horse and other animal sports.

                    799 – Fishing.

*      Further division.

                    796.3 – ball games.

                    796.32 – basket ball.

 

EVERY LIBRARY BOOK HAS A NUMBER.

                    Eg: 973.7/w 498 m.

                    973.7 → shows it a history, geography book.

                    W → first letter of the authors name.

                    M → first letter of the title.

 

LETTER WRITING

THREE kinds of letters.

  • Business letters – for business purposes
  •  Job related letters - job application letters.
  • Personal letters - letters between friends and family .

 

Parts of a letters

  1. Heading
  2. Date
  3. Inside address
  4. Salutation
  5. The body of the letters
  6. Complimentary close
  7. Signature

 

LETTER FORMATS.

 

BLOCK STYLE

MODIFIED BLOCK STYLE

  1. Address of the writer is given and the left hand top
  1. The heading is given at right hand top.

 

 2.seven parts of the letter are flush with the left margin

 2. inside address is in the block format

 

 3.complimentary close and signature line are drawn to the right

 

 JOB LETTERS

  1. Intention of obtaining employment
  2. Kind of business letter
  • First paragraph : says where you came and post applying for.
  • Second paragraph : sign of the sober
  • Concluding paragraph : enquires and request for the interview.

HOW TO EXPRESS IDEA

 

  1.  Select a plan
  2. Set of ideas
  3. Appropriate tone
  4. Turn of expression

 

  1. IS letting the employee know ,what you know ,what your skills are and what have been doing.
  2. Should not exceed two typed pages
  3. Get your resume proof readed by two persons
  4. Resume should contain headings .
  5. Negative information neednot mention.
  6. Reference
  7. Information can set down in sentence or phrases
  8. Job experience in reverse chronological order

 

PERSONAL LETTERS

  • Personal letters written between friends and family members
  • Personal letters are informal
  •  Place ,date at the right hand top
  • Signature too is at right.

 

 ACADEMIC ASSIGNMENTS

Steps :

  1. How to choose the topic ?
  •  A topic in which you are really interested.
  • Make sure that enough information is available.
  • Topic must have the approval of supervising teacher.
  • You must be competent in the topic.
  • Topic must not be a controversial one.
  1. How to work with bibliography?

 → List of books

HELPFUL IN TWO WAYS

  • To find whether enough material is available.
  • Increase awareness of the subjects.

Eg :name of the author, title of the book, publication details, place of publication, publisher’s name, year of publication.

 

Note taking – Forms.

 

  • Quotation: May be short or long.

→ Paraphrase: Take note in our own language.

  • précis
  • Gist: Summary of passage.

 

  1.  Work cited
  2. Borrowing ideas , charts ,quotation etc. from other authors should be acknowledged at the end of the borrowed material.
  3.  Documentation

 → acknowledging the researcher`s indebtedness to those authors from whose writing ideas, quotations etc. have been borrowed. 

 

Notes Courtesy:

Department of English, John Paul Memorial College of Arts and Science, Labbakkada, Idukki

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