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14 Jun

Sanskrit Literary Criticism:Critical Notes

Highways of Literary Criticism in Sanskrit S Kuppuswami Sastri This essay is a celebration of the power of Vyanjana. It is the central principle of literary criticism in Sanskrit. Anandavardhana, in his Dhvanyaloka argues that vyanjana is the source of poetic charm. There was a time when people believed that ‘all art is expression’. However Benedetto Croce replaced

13 Jun

Archetypal Criticism: Critical Notes

Archetypal Criticism Archetypal criticism marks the transition from New Criticism to structuralism. The Canadian mythologist Northrop Frye is considered to be the founding father of archetypal criticism. His Anatomy of Criticism is a touchstone in archetypal criticism. The major archetypal critics are Leslie Fiedler, Francis Fergusson, Richard Chase, Philip Wheelwright, Wilson Knigh

13 Jun

Russian Formalism: Critical Notes

Russian Formalism (East European Formalism) Writings from Russia had long been hidden behind the Iron Curtain. The best achievements of the Russians lie in the novel and the short story. But the major breakthrough came about in the form of Russian Formalism. The pioneers of this movement were Roman Jakobson, Victor Shklovsky and Boris Eichenbaum. The movement became institutional

13 Jun

New Criticism: Critical Notes

The New Criticism The most noteworthy movement in twentieth century criticism is New Criticism. This movement grew in England and in the United States and hence it is called Anglo-American New Criticism. The term New Criticism was put into circulation by Joel E Spingarn. He explained the theories of Croce in a booklet called The New Criticism in 1911. Later, in 1941, the poet John C

13 Jun

I A Richards: Critical Notes

Ivor Armstrong Richards (1893 – 1979) I A Richards is often referred to as the critical consciousness of our age. John Crowe Ransom begins his book The New Criticism with the remark that any discussion of the New Critics must start with Dr Richards.   Synaesthesis Richards says that the aesthetic state is not any different from the ordinary state in our life. Aes