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27 Jun

How Simple It Is by P P Ramachandran

"How Simple it is" by P P Ramachandran "How Simple it is" is the English translation of the Malayalam poem "Lalitham" penned by poet PP Ramachandran. The subtlety and minimalism that characterise much of his poetry find ample articulation in this short and beautiful poem. Multiple English translations of the poem exist, some of which are included here for

07 Jun


Phonetics Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. A phoneme is the smallest distinctive sound unit. A pulmonic egressive air-stream mechanism is used in the production of English sounds. To describe a consonant, we need to know: 1. The Air-Stream Mechanism – Pulmonic egressive 2. The State of glottis- Voiceless - /p, t, k, f, , s, ʃ, h, tʃ/ Voiced - /b, d, g,

07 Jun

Difference between EFL and ESL

Difference between EFL and ESL   English as a Foreign Language (EFL) “When English is taught as a school subject or on an adult level solely for the purpose of giving the student a foreign language competence which he may use in one of several ways, then it is taught as a foreign language”.   English as a Second Language (ESL) English becomes a sec

07 Jun

Teaching Vocabulary

Teaching Vocabulary Words are the substance of language and language is the repository of knowledge. As C.L Wren remarks, “Of all world languages, English probably has the vocabulary which is the most copious, heterogeneous and varied”. Neither is it possible, nor is it necessary to learn all these words.   F.G French classifies words in relation to its users. H

07 Jun

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) It is defined as an interaction between a student, a computer controlled display and a response entry device for the purpose of achieving educational outcomes. It is essentially learning with computers and not about computers.   Advantages Learning is individualized. Increases the teacher’s resources. Less time is needed t

07 Jun

Teaching Machine

Teaching Machine It is a device designed to be operated by an individual student. It can interact with the student to a remarkable degree. Its features are: The students is presented with a question by some form of display on the machine. The student must respond overtly. He must either write an answer or push a button to indicate the correct answer. The student is informed